Bone and back pain: Vitamin D helps to maintain your bone health in many ways. Also, it improves your body’s absorption of calcium. Lower back pain and bone pain may be a symptom of inadequate vitamin D levels in the blood. Different observational studies have found a strong relationship between vitamin D deficiency and chronic lower back pain. One study observed the association between back pain and vitamin D levels in more than 9,000 older women. The researchers of the study found that those with a deficiency were more likely to have severe back pain.